While the values might just seem to be a list of higher level goals with no direct outcome on the particular project, there is a lower level of definition in Agile methodologies: Principles. From Elisabeth Hendrickson and Lisa Crispin & Janet Gregory I was able to construct a list of useful principles. Here is the first half of this list of testing principles.
- Provide Continuous Feedback
- Deliver Value to the Customer
- Enable Face-to-Face Communication
- Keep it Simple
- Practice Continuous Improvement
- Reduce test documentation overhead
Feedback is one of the higher values for sucessful projects. As Poppendieck & Poppendieck pointed out in Lean Software Development – An Agile Toolkit feedback is vital to software development. They compare software development and manufacturing with cooking: While development or engineering means to come up with a recipe, manufacturing is just applying over and over the recipe that is already there. Since software development is a recipe building action, it needs iterations and feedback to be successful.
From this perspective testers provide feedback from the customer point-of-view into the programming activities. Likewise they provide feedback as a substitute for the end-consumer by adding exercising tests – may these be manual or automated. Like the memory structure in the current computer systems, testers can be thought of as the cache towards production for each program increment. This does not mean, that testers are the gatekeepers for any software deliveral. This rather means, that they can provide timely feedback to the programmers, rather than opening or closing the gate towards production. By addressing issues before the software gets into production, the feedback for the programming team is achieved in an efficient manner for them to learn.
Testers are the bridge between the programming team with its technical terms and the customers with their business language. By incorporating a solid ubiquitous language into the test cases, these two worlds can get closed and guarantee transparency for the customer. This higher level goal can be achieved by working directly with the customer on test cases and likewise giving feedback to the team members who are developing the software the customer ordered. A test which is twisted up with complex logic is no value for the customer. A test case turning business terms green when it’s passing on the other hand is. Testers provide the service of filling the communication gap between technical software development and the business of the end user.
Alistair Cockburn points out the principle, that two people at a whiteboard are communicating more efficient than two people over email or videotape. He visualizes this principle in a well understandable manner. When considering software testing, a tester should therefore motivate and enable direct communication forms wherever possible. When two people are talking face-to-face on a difficult requirement, they efficiently get a common understand of it. Therefore tester should enable direct communication to customers, to developers, to department heads, to project management, …
Lisa Crispin and Janet Gregory introduce the Law Of Three in their book on Agile Testing. The Law Of Three states, that any design decision or requirement discussion need to involve one person from all of the three groups: customers, developers and testers. Whenever a discussion is started, a decision need to involve all affected groups. Direct face-to-face communication supports this law by building up efficient communication channels between the three.
Simplicity is a key in Agile Software Development. Without the waste of usual software processes teams maintain their ability for agility. This directly means to keep your test cases as clear as possible. Additionally through simplicity you enable your team to understand your tests and be able to adapt it if the business demand this. Just like the Collective Code-Ownership practice in eXtreme Programming, testing teams have the demand for collective test case ownership. Just through simplicity you not only enable your co-testers, but also the business analysts, developers and customers to adapt test cases when the situation asks for this.
This principle is simply demanded by the craft aspect behind Software Development. Just like any new cool programming language or technique, testers should keep their improvement potential up-to-date. By visiting conferences on test techniques or latest test automation tools, a tester can improve her skills in these areas. This also means, that learning a new programming language or test technique such as performance- or load-testing is a way to improve one’s own abilities. Learning a common language to express testing patterns is another example of it. By providing this pattern language to your teammates, you enable them to learn from you and additionally you improve your speaking skills. These are just some parts of your daily work where you can practice improvement on yourself and your team. Look out for additional possibilities.
As Mary and Tom Poppendieck pointed out in Lean Software Development – An Agile Toolkit wasteful tasks should be avoided in order to have the highest possible return on investment. This means reducing test plans, test design documents and test protocols using tool support and ubiquitous language to a minimum. This does not mean to drop any test documentation. Rather your team and your customer should be brought in to the discussion of the level of necessary documentation. In case you’re working in safety critical software or your organisation demands it due to CMMI or ISO9000 compliance, you will be forced to use more extensive test documentation. Look out for ways to reduce these to a minimum and avoid wasteful documentation, which needs adaptation to the current situation every week or even on a daily basis.